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Hyperledger

Meet the TSC: Dan Middleton, Intel

By | Blog, Hyperledger Sawtooth

Back to our blog series that focuses on the motivations and backgrounds of the individuals that make up Hyperledger’s Technical Steering Committee (TSC). The TSC is a group of community-elected developers drawn from a pool of active participants and is a core element of Hyperledger’s Open Governance model. The TSC is responsible for all technical decisions – from which features to add, how to add them and when, among others.

Now let’s introduce the next Hyperledger TSC member, Dan Middleton from Intel. Let’s see what he had to say about Hyperledger, his role in the TSC and the community!

Describe your current role, background and why you wanted to be a part of the Hyperledger TSC?

My background is in distributed systems and applied cryptography with a particular interest in anonymous credentials. I’ve spent many years working across the boundary of research and commercialization. Currently I’m Head of Technology for Blockchain at Intel.

Being a part of the TSC is a great opportunity to be directly involved in this new and interesting field. I get to work alongside bright people with diverse technical views and see their approaches to the challenges we face.

Dan Middleton, Head of Technology for Intel’s Blockchain and Distributed Ledger program & maintainer of Hyperledger Sawtooth

How are you or your company currently using Hyperledger technologies or how do you plan to?

Intel is using Hyperledger Sawtooth in a number of internal and external engagements.

I’m personally quite interested in Supply Chain applications of blockchain. I’m really proud of work from other committers on this latest addition to Sawtooth’s capabilities.

It’s going to let people automatically add telemetry to records and provide provenance for anything that needs to be tracked (food, software, hardware, etc.). That aspect of traceability is one of the strengths of blockchain I’d like to see tested in the market.

It’s inspired by the case study that Intel previously contributed: https://www.hyperledger.org/projects/sawtooth/seafood-case-study

What are the benefits of Hyperledger’s open governance model?

Transparency drives a lot of really good behaviors. Decision making is all in the open and it’s clear for anyone who’s interested to see and participate in how the technology is built. (It’s also an interesting parallel with operating distributed ledgers).

What’s the most important technical milestone for Hyperledger to reach by the end of 2017?

There’s a number of important technical milestones for each project and workgroup under the Hyperledger Umbrella. I’m focused on the Sawtooth 1.0 release and definitions of critical metrics in our new Performance and Scalability workgroup.

What advice would you offer other technologists or developers interested in getting started working on blockchain?

Pick something that you are passionate about.  

What’s the one thing you hope to accomplish by being a part of Hyperledger’s TSC?

Maintaining the Intellectual honesty of the project. There’s a lot of uncertainty and ignorance about blockchain in the marketplace. We have an opportunity to present a responsible view of the technology so consumers and companies can make rational decisions.

What’s a missing feature or spec that you hope Hyperledger can add in the soon future?

The industry needs a way to meaningfully measure the performance of blockchains. Metrics designed for monolithic systems will not help people make good decisions about blockchain platforms where availability and integrity features are paramount. The work we are starting in the Perf. & Scalability WG should arrive at useful measures that reflect the unique aspects of blockchains.

What’s the biggest struggle or challenge you see Hyperledger having to overcome?

Hyperledger is NOT a single ledger and is not a single project but this is immediately confusing to everyone on their first encounter with the name. As an umbrella, Hyperledger encompasses a wide range of projects each with a unique contribution to the field. Advertising the full breadth of work here is a constant challenge.

[VIDEO] Hyperledger Interviews Todd McDonald, R3

By | Blog

Todd McDonald is the co-founder and head of product at R3. He also serves on the Hyperledger Governing Board. Todd believes the Hyperledger community brings a lot of value with its open culture, network and contributions from members.

Blockchain can drastically change not only how banks and financial institutions do business, but how their customers interact, according to Todd. It can make business processes more secure and more efficient at much lower cost.

It comes down to different actors being more comfortable with moving from perception to a shared truth. R3 is very excited to see how the broader Hyperledger community can advance that.

Watch the full video below:

Q&A: Does blockchain alleviate security concerns or create new challenges?

By | Blog

According to some, blockchain is one of the hottest and most intriguing technologies currently in the market. Similar to the rising of the internet, blockchain could potentially disrupt multiple industries, including financial services. This Thursday, October 19 at Sibos in Toronto, Hyperledger’s Security Maven Dave Huseby will be moderating a panel “Does Blockchain technology alleviate security concerns or create new challenges?” During this session, experts will explore whether the shared nature of blockchain helps or hinders security.

We developed a Q&A with Dave to go over some security questions related to blockchain in advance of the panel. Let’s get to it!

What are the cyber-security concerns that you are noticing today?

Integrating with existing systems, cryptographic key material management,  and providing the required network quality of service connecting blockchain members are the greatest cyber-security concerns I am noticing today.  Any organization applying blockchain technology to an existing process almost certainly has existing systems that chaincode/smart contracts will have to interact with.  Building proper oracles to ensure execution of smart contracts is crucial.  Also making sure that all cryptographic key material is properly stored and handled is of great concern.  The entire blockchain security rests on the assumption that cryptographic keys will be secured properly.  And lastly, since most consensus algorithms are latency sensitive, it is also very important to have the most stable and lowest latency network connections possible. If network interference increases latency, the maximum transaction throughput drops.  One potential denial of service is to prevent consensus from occurring by disrupting the lines of communication. With blockchains, extra care of network connections is needed.

How do you think blockchain could disrupt multiple industries and which industries?

Workload management services (e.g. batch processing, batch reconciliation, etc) is one industry that will likely change.  Traditionally, a batch process would be run at the end of each day to process the incoming data and update the stored data in a system.  With blockchains we gain real-time transaction processing, as they are created. With proper business process modeling, batch processing can be eliminated.

I also think we will see blockchains creating an unprecedented level of cooperation on market-wide management between market or consortia members.  Markets where aggregate numbers are used to manage quotas are a good example.  Commercial harvesting of natural resources, humanitarian aid distribution, and a whole host of other systems could all benefit from using a blockchain to track market-wide numbers for management purposes.

Do you think the nature of blockchain will help or hinder security?

It eliminates a lot of security related failure modes (i.e. database sync, siloing of data, etc) but also creates a whole new set of challenges around cryptographic key material management as well as getting integrating blockchains with external systems and other organizations on the blockchain.  Good blockchain security requires the enthusiastic cooperation of multiple IT departments to get things secured correctly.  So overall, I would say that blockchains are a net improvement in security but there are certainly some new challenges that will be new to most organizations.

You have said before you believe security is a people issue, not a technology issue.  Can you elaborate on that and how, if at all, blockchain would change that?

There is an old adage in computer science that goes: even if we design and build the perfect computer system, if you put garbage into it, you will get garbage out. Blockchains don’t change that at all. People and computer-human interfaces are still the dominant factor in the overall security of a blockchain network. It all boils down to the fact that blockchains are distributed systems made up of computers that need to be secured by humans.  With permissioned blockchains, humans are responsible for managing the membership of users and their capabilities.  They are also responsible for deploying the chaincode/smart contracts and also manage the cryptographic key material.  The cryptography and algorithmic design of blockchains is sound and if something goes wrong it is most likely because somebody made a mistake.

If there’s one thing people should understand about security and blockchain at this point in the maturation of the technology, what is it?

A lot of the security techniques and best practices we developed around running web services and distributed business services still apply.  Most of what we already know applies directly to securing the different pieces of distributed ledgers.  The techniques developed from decades of experience security N-tier online services apply to blockchains as well.  

Transactions get proposed by users through a networked API; think of that as analogous to the front-end server in a three-tier web site architecture.  The blockchain API performs the initial validation of the transaction and verifies that the proper credentials have been presented by the transaction proposer.  The transaction then gets forwarded to a peer for validation and endorsement.  To continue the analogy, think of the blockchain peer as being like the web application server, because it also handles executing smart contracts.  Once the transaction is endorsed and the smart contract executed, the transaction moves on to being ordered and recorded in the next block in the blockchain.  That is very similar to how web application state is recorded in a back-end database cluster.

The point of this analogy is to show that blockchains don’t have drastically different security requirements.  The one area that does require some extra attention is around the protection of the cryptographic key materials.  Special care must also be taken to ensure that the consensus part of the distributed ledger operates on network connections with the lowest latency and highest quality of service as possible.  This is because many of the consensus algorithms are latency sensitive and the upper bound on their transaction rate is tied to the overall system latency.

Do you have other questions about security and blockchain? Get in touch with us at [email protected] or you can join our efforts on Hyperledger projects, via githubRocket.Chat, the wiki or the mailing lists. You can also follow Hyperledger on Twitter.

Hyperledger Welcomes Baidu as Premier Member

By | Announcements

China’s leading internet search provider invests in blockchain to serve customers with innovative solutions that prioritize user experience

SAN FRANCISCO  – October 17, 2017 – Hyperledger, an open source collaborative effort created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies, announced today that Baidu has joined the project as a Premier member. Other Hyperledger Premier members include: Accenture, Airbus, American Express, Change Healthcare, Cisco, CME Group, Deutsche Borse Group, Daimler, Digital Asset, DTCC, Fujitsu, Hitachi, IBM, Intel, J.P. Morgan, NEC, r3., SAP, Tradeshift and Wanda FFan Technology.

“It’s exciting to see a company like Baidu, which serves the world’s largest Internet user population, join Hyperledger,” said Brian Behlendorf, Executive Director, Hyperledger. “Their deep understanding in connecting users to information and services will be tremendous experience for us to leverage as we look to expand our reach further in Asia and drive more global production deployments of Hyperledger technology.”

Hyperledger aims to create common distributed ledger technology that enables organizations to build and run robust, industry-specific applications, platforms and hardware systems to support their individual business transactions. Since the beginning of 2016, Hyperledger has grown to more than 160 members that span various industries, including finance, healthcare, the Internet of Things and aeronautics, among several others.

“Over the past 17 years, we have striven to fulfill our mission by listening carefully to our users,” said Zhang Xuyang, Vice President of Baidu. “We believe blockchain technology will allow us to better tailor our search technology to our users’ needs by enhancing the way we optimize local tastes and preferences. We’re thrilled to be part of Hyperledger and look forward to collaborating with other members to drive open blockchain solutions forward.”

To see a full list of member companies, visit: https://www.hyperledger.org/about/members. If you’re interested in joining Hyperledger as a member company, please visit: https://www.hyperledger.org/about/join

About Hyperledger

Hyperledger is an open source collaborative effort created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies. It is a global collaboration including leaders in finance, banking, Internet of Things, supply chains, manufacturing and Technology. The Linux Foundation hosts Hyperledger under the foundation. To learn more, visit: https://www.hyperledger.org/.

Hyperledger Gets Cozy With Quilt

By | Blog

We’re thrilled to welcome yet another project under Hyperledger, Quilt. Hyperledger Quilt started around 18 months ago and is a Java implementation of the Interledger protocol. Interledger, also known as ILP, is a protocol for making transactions across ledgers. The protocol’s standards and specifications are being defined by the open source community under the World Wide Web Consortium umbrella. With the addition of Quilt to Hyperledger, the Linux Foundation now hosts both the Java (Quilt) and JavaScript (Interledger.js) Interledger implementations. The JS Foundation welcomed Interledger.js in 2016.

As an open consortium, Hyperledger incubates a range of business blockchain technologies, including distributed ledger frameworks, smart contract engines, client libraries, graphical interfaces, utility libraries and sample applications. Quilt is the latest project to join this vast community.

What is Hyperledger Quilt?

Hyperledger Quilt offers interoperability between ledger systems by implementing ILP, which is primarily a payments protocol and is designed to transfer value across systems – both distributed ledgers and non-distributed ledgers. It is a simple protocol that establishes a global namespace for accounts, as well as, a protocol for synchronized atomic swaps between different systems.

Why Quilt?

Ledger systems today are siloed and disconnected. Transfers of value are relatively easy within one country, or if the sender and recipient have accounts on the same network or ledger. But sending value to someone on a different network or ledger is complex and often impractical. Where connections between ledgers do exist, they are manual, slow or expensive.

The Interledger protocol is based on concepts dating back to the 1970s and 1980s, but it took the advent of Bitcoin and the global blockchain movement to make the world realize that money and value transfers could be reinvented with Internet based technologies.

Internet protocols enable information to be packetized, routed and delivered over communication networks. With ILP, money and other forms of value can be packetized, routed and delivered over payment networks and ledgers. Hyperledger Quilt is an enterprise grade implementation of the protocol, developed in Java, and providing libraries and reference implementations of the core Interledger components and in time ledger integrations for other Hyperledger projects.

Technical Details of Quilt

The idea is that Quilt will become a ledger interoperability solution for Hyperledger projects. This will enable Hyperledger members’ distributed ledger solutions, financial institutions’ private ledgers, IoT companies’ wallets, and supply chain systems to connect with one another to perform distributed atomic transactions.

By implementing the Interledger protocol, Quilt provides:

  • A set of rules for enabling ledger interoperability with basic escrow semantics
  • A standard for a ledger-independent address format and data packet format that will enable connectors to route payments
  • A framework for designing higher level use-case-specific protocols

Who will work on Quilt?

Everis, NTT DATA and Ripple are committing full-time engineering resources to ensure the success of this project. The main contributors will include Takahiro Inaba (NTT DATA), Adrian Hope-Bailie (Ripple) and Isaac Arruebarrena (Everis, an NTT DATA Company).

Many other members have already expressed interest in backing the development of Quilt’s Java implementation. This team will seek to work with the other Hyperledger projects in order to find ways to enable ledger interoperability across Hyperledger’s DLT solutions and institutions’ centralised ledgers. Other engineers from NTT DATA, Everis and Ripple will also contribute to the project over time. Members of the Interledger Payments Community Group have also shown interest in contributing to the development of this ILP implementation.

Getting started with Quilt

There will be repositories on GitHub to manage Quilt resources – they will become available over the next several weeks. You can watch for them here: hyperledger/quilt and hyperledger/quilt-crypto-conditions.

Quilt is an exciting addition for the Hyperledger community.  As always, we encourage developers to join our efforts on Quilt as well as other projects, via github, Rocket.Chat, the wiki or the mailing lists. You can also follow Hyperledger on Twitter or email us with any questions: [email protected]

Hyperledger Adds Tradeshift as Premier Member

By | Announcements

Company to explore open blockchain technology to accelerate innovation in business-to-business commerce

SAN FRANCISCO  – October 11, 2017 – Hyperledger, an open source collaborative effort created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies, announced today that Tradeshift has joined the project as a Premier member. With a strong focus on global supply chain management and B2B commerce, Tradeshift is a unique addition to the Hyperledger community. As a Premier member, Gert Sylvest, Tradeshift CTO and co-founder, will sit on the Hyperledger Governing Board. Tradeshift joins other Premier members: Accenture, Airbus, American Express, Change Healthcare, Cisco, CME Group, Deutsche Borse Group, Daimler, Digital Asset, DTCC, Fujitsu, Hitachi, IBM, Intel, J.P. Morgan, NEC, r3., SAP, and Wanda FFan Technology.

“Tradeshift is a leader in B2B commerce and has an excellent track record of contributing open source technologies and bringing value to communities,” said Brian Behlendorf, Executive Director, Hyperledger. “We share that same vision by aiming to create a common distributed ledger technology, driving collaboration and enabling organizations to build and run industry-specific blockchain applications and solutions. We’re thrilled to see Tradeshift take a leadership role within Hyperledger’s Governing Board.”

Hyperledger aims to create common distributed ledger technology that enables organizations to build and run robust, industry-specific applications, platforms and hardware systems to support their individual business transactions. Since the beginning of 2016, Hyperledger has grown to more than 160 members that span various industries, including finance, healthcare, the Internet of Things and aeronautics, among several others.

“We’re excited to join Hyperledger and further our investment in distributed ledger technology through such a collaborative and innovative model,” said Gert Sylvest, CTO and co-founder, Tradeshift. “In an industry that is continuously transforming, we look forward to contributing to an effort that matches our own values surrounding community, collaboration, interoperability, and openness.”

To see a full list of member companies, visit: https://www.hyperledger.org/about/members. If you’re interested in joining Hyperledger as a member company, please visit: https://www.hyperledger.org/about/join

About Hyperledger

Hyperledger is an open source collaborative effort created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies. It is a global collaboration including leaders in finance, banking, Internet of Things, supply chains, manufacturing and Technology. The Linux Foundation hosts Hyperledger under the foundation. To learn more, visit: https://www.hyperledger.org/.

Hyperledger Launches First Free Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) on edX.org

By | Announcements, Hyperledger Fabric, Hyperledger Sawtooth

Pre-registration now open for Blockchain for Business: An Introduction to Hyperledger free online course

SAN FRANCISCO, CA – (October 10, 2017) Hyperledger, an open source collaborative effort created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies, announced today the availability of its first free Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) — Blockchain for Business: An Introduction to Hyperledger. The free, self-paced online course is offered through edX.org, the nonprofit online learning platform founded in 2012 by Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The course provides an introduction to Hyperledger and its key business blockchain frameworks. Pre-registration is now open with the course becoming fully available on October 25 with the option to add a verified certificate of completion for $99. Verified Certificates are a valuable addition to academic or professional portfolios and can be added to resumes/CVs and LinkedIn profiles.

“Interest in blockchain technology is exploding; Software developers, product teams, and business managers are all desperately eager to figure out how this technology can solve real-world problems,” said Brian Behlendorf, Executive Director, Hyperledger.  “This first introductory-level course is carefully designed for both nontechnical and technical audiences, to bring everyone further up the learning curve and get started with it on their own business needs.”

The MOOC is delivered in partnership with edX and the Linux Foundation, responsible for training and certifying more developers on open source software than any organization in the world. It covers key features of blockchain technologies and the differentiators between various types of Hyperledger projects.

The course will provide an understanding of:

  • Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies
  • Current Hyperledger projects and common use cases
  • How to do clean installations of Hyperledger Fabric, and Hyperledger Sawtooth frameworks
  • How to build simple applications on top of Hyperledger Fabric and Hyperledger Sawtooth frameworks
  • How to become involved in and contribute to Hyperledger

“Hyperledger and blockchain are two key skillsets that are increasingly in demand in today’s digital world,” said edX CEO and MIT Professor, Anant Agarwal. “Our global community of learners have told us that they are seeking courses to help them gain the career-relevant skills they need for the modern workplace. We are thrilled to once again partner with the Linux Foundation to offer a course on this popular, in-demand subject that will provide the building blocks needed for success within the exciting and rapidly expanding field of blockchain technologies.”

To find out more, or to pre-register now, go to: https://www.edx.org/course/blockchain-business-introduction-linuxfoundationx-lfs171x

About The Linux Foundation

The Linux Foundation is the organization of choice for the world’s top developers and companies to build ecosystems that accelerate open technology development and commercial adoption. Together with the worldwide open source community, it is solving the hardest technology problems by creating the largest shared technology investment in history. Founded in 2000, The Linux Foundation today provides tools, training and events to scale any open source project, which together deliver an economic impact not achievable by any one company. More information can be found at www.linuxfoundation.org.

About Hyperledger

Hyperledger is an open source collaborative effort created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies. It is a global collaboration including leaders in finance, banking, Internet of Things, supply chains, manufacturing and Technology. The Linux Foundation hosts Hyperledger under the foundation. To learn more, visit: https://www.hyperledger.org/.

Join us at Sibos in Toronto!

By | Blog

We’re traveling to Toronto in a few weeks to attend Sibos 2017, Oct 16-19. Under the conference theme of ‘Building for the Future,’ we have a robust program agenda planned that is designed to help attendees learn about permissioned blockchains, distributed ledger technologies and smart contracts, plus the latest innovations coming out of Hyperledger.

There will be a mix of Hyperledger sessions moderated by Executive Director, Brian Behlendorf and others on the team as well as our members that touch on everything from business standards, to security implications, to specific use cases of blockchain.

A brief synopsis of the schedule of activities is below. We hope to see you there!

Check out the complete line-up of Hyperledger activities onsite Sibos here.

Hyperledger Sessions at Sibos 2017

New Technologies and Business Standards

Panel

Tuesday, Oct. 17

9:30 to 10:20

Hyperledger Executive Director Brian Behlendorf will moderate a panel with Hyperledger members Richard Gendal, CTO for R3, Umar Farooq, Head of Digital Channels and Innovation at J.P. Morgan, Ram Komarraju, Head of Innovation and Technology Delivery for CLS, as well as Cliff Richards, Executive General Manager of Australian Stock Exchange.

—————–

Does Blockchain technology alleviate security concerns or create new challenges

Panel

Thursday, Oct. 19

9:30 to 10:30

Conference room 2

Join Hyperledger Security Maven David Huseby, along with Hyperledger members Digital Asset CEO and Hyperledger Governing Board Chair Blythe Masters, BBVA Head of Digital Transformation, Corporate & Investment Banking, Alicia Pertusa, CLS CIO Thomas Zschach, as well as representatives from Chain and Mizuho Financial Group, Inc. in this security-focused discussion.

—————–

Use of Blockchain Technologies from Hyperledger

Fireside Chat

Tuesday, Oct. 17

14:00 to 14:30

Open Theatre 1

Join Hyperledger Executive Director Brian Behlendorf, and Hyperledger members IntellectEU CEO Hanna Zubko and MonetaGo CEO Jesse Chenard for a fireside chat on the use of blockchain technologies in PoCs, pilots and in production deployments around the world.

—————–

Developing Blockchain Technologies

Fireside Chat and Cocktail Reception

Tuesday, Oct. 17

16:30 to 18:30

Hyperledger booth A01

Hyperledger VP of Worldwide Alliances Daniela Barbosa will moderate a fireside chat with Hyperledger Governing Board members DTCC Managing Director and Chief Technology Architect, Robert Palatnick, and Global Head of Accenture’s Capital Markets Blockchain practice, Dave Treat.

——————

Hyperledger Member Sessions

 

Cyber Security: Trends and Implications in Financial Services

Panel with SecureKey CEO Greg Wolfond

Monday, Oct. 16

9:30 to 10:30

Conference Room 2

—————–

Can Blockchain Enable an Efficient International Trade Network?

Panel with NTT DATA Corporation Senior Manager Yoshiharu Akahane

Monday, Oct. 16

12:15 to 12:45

Open Theatre 1

 

Demos in Hyperledger’s Booth

Join us in the Hyperledger Booth A01 on Tuesday and Wednesday for member demos of PoCs and pilots built with Hyperledger technologies! See Hyperledger-powered applications built by member companies to address market requirements across industries.

Tuesday, Oct. 17

10:30-10:50 – 1 World Blockchain

11:00-11:20 – Moscow Exchange

11:30-11:50 – MonetaGo

12:00-12:20 – Accenture

12:30-12:50 – Soramitsu

13:00-13:20 – HACERA

 

Wednesday, Oct. 18

11:00-11:20 – IntellectEU & Oracle

11:30-11:50 – SecureKey

12:00-12:20 – IBM

12:30-12:50 – SWIFT

13:00-13:20 – Tradeix

Learn more about the demos.

If you’re attending Sibos, stop by Hyperledger booth A01 and say hi to the team! Be sure to plug into the Hyperledger community at github, Rocket.Chat the wiki or our mailing list. You can also follow Hyperledger on Twitter to keep up to date on the latest events or email us at [email protected] for more information.

Meet the TSC: Mic Bowman, Intel

By | Blog

We return to our blog series that focuses on the motivations and backgrounds of the individuals that make up Hyperledger’s Technical Steering Committee (TSC). The TSC is a group of community-elected developers drawn from a pool of active participants and is a core element of Hyperledger’s Open Governance model. The TSC is responsible for all technical decisions – from which features to add, how to add them and when, among others.

Now let’s introduce the next Hyperledger TSC member, Mic Bowman from Intel. Let’s see what he had to say about Hyperledger, his role in the TSC and the community!

Describe your current role, background and why you wanted to be a part of the Hyperledger TSC?

I lead the distributed ledgers research group in Intel Labs, focused on the use of advanced processor technologies for improving the scalability, resiliency, and confidentiality of blockchain technologies. The Hyperledger Working Group provides a channel for delivering new blockchain technologies to the broadest possible base of enterprise users.

Mic Bowman, principal engineer & head of the distributed ledger research group at Intel

What are the benefits of Hyperledger’s open governance model?

The open governance model ensures that interests of the community supersede the interests of any individual organization. It fosters an environment where companies can work together to deliver common building-block technologies that enable lost-cost experimentation and ultimately deployment of enterprise blockchain applications.

What advice would you offer other technologists or developers interested in getting started working on blockchain?

Blockchain is not one technology. It is an approach to solving problems of decentralized trust. To be successful, start with the problem you want to solve, not the technology you want use to solve it.